People who are oppressed or suppressed need an outlet, so they write on walls—it's free. From the s onwards, Burhan Dogancay photographed urban walls all over the world; these he then archived for use as sources of inspiration for his painterly works. The project today known as "Walls of the World" grew beyond even his own expectations and comprises about 30, individual images. It spans a period of 40 years across five continents and countries. In , photographs from this project comprised a one-man exhibition titled "Les murs murmurent, ils crient, ils chantent In Australia, art historians have judged some local graffiti of sufficient creative merit to rank them firmly within the arts.
Oxford University Press 's art history text Australian Painting — concludes with a long discussion of graffiti's key place within contemporary visual culture , including the work of several Australian practitioners. Between March and April , artists exhibited pieces of graffiti at the Grand Palais in Paris — a clear acceptance of the art form into the French art world. Figurines by KAWS , featuring icons of pop culture, often with crossed-out eyes, run in limited editions and sell for thousands of dollars.
Graffiti by Miss Van and Ciou in Barcelona.
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Graffiti in Buenos Aires , showing the Obelisk. Return of the three funny types by Dutch graffiti artist Ces This artwork makes use of existing windows in Olinda , Pernambuco, Brazil. Spray paint has many negative environmental effects. The paint contains toxic chemicals, and the can uses volatile hydrocarbon gases to spray the paint onto a surface.
In China, Mao Zedong in the s used revolutionary slogans and paintings in public places to galvanise the country's communist revolution. Based on different national conditions, many people believe that China's attitude towards Graffiti is fierce, but in fact, according to Lance Crayon's film "Spray Paint Beijing: Graffiti in the Capital of China", Graffiti is accepted by many people in Beijing, China, and even the police do not make much interference.
But politically and religiously sensitive graffiti is not allowed.
In Hong Kong, Tsang Tsou Choi was known as the King of Kowloon for his calligraphy graffiti over many years, in which he claimed ownership of the area. Now some of his work is preserved officially. In Taiwan , the government has made some concessions to graffitists. Since they have been allowed to freely display their work along some sections of riverside retaining walls in designated "Graffiti Zones". It's our goal to beautify the city with graffiti". The government later helped organize a graffiti contest in Ximending , a popular shopping district.
We don't go after it proactively. In , after several expensive cars in Singapore were spray-painted, the police arrested a student from the Singapore American School , Michael P. Fay , questioned him, and subsequently charged him with vandalism. Fay pleaded guilty to vandalizing a car in addition to stealing road signs. The New York Times ran several editorials and op-eds that condemned the punishment and called on the American public to flood the Singaporean embassy with protests. Although the Singapore government received many calls for clemency , Fay's caning took place in Singapore on 5 May Fay had originally received a sentence of six strokes of the cane, but the presiding president of Singapore , Ong Teng Cheong , agreed to reduce his caning sentence to four lashes.
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Park alleged that the initial in "G" sounds like the Korean word for "rat", but Korean government prosecutors alleged that Mr. Park was making a derogatory statement about the president of ROK, Lee Myung-bak , the host of the summit. This case led to public outcry and debate on the lack of government tolerance and in support of freedom of expression. The court ruled that the painting, "an ominous creature like a rat" amounts to "an organized criminal activity" and upheld the fine while denying the prosecution's request for imprisonment for Park. Street art in poetic form in Hualien City , Taiwan.
Street graffiti in Hong Kong. In September , the European Parliament directed the European Commission to create urban environment policies to prevent and eliminate dirt, litter, graffiti, animal excrement, and excessive noise from domestic and vehicular music systems in European cities, along with other concerns over urban life. In August , the Keep Britain Tidy campaign issued a press release calling for zero tolerance of graffiti and supporting proposals such as issuing "on the spot" fines to graffiti offenders and banning the sale of aerosol paint to anyone under the age of To back the campaign, MPs including then Prime Minister Tony Blair , signed a charter which stated: "Graffiti is not art, it's crime.
On behalf of my constituents, I will do all I can to rid our community of this problem. In the UK, city councils have the power to take action against the owner of any property that has been defaced under the Anti-social Behaviour Act as amended by the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act or, in certain cases, the Highways Act. This is often used against owners of property that are complacent in allowing protective boards to be defaced so long as the property is not damaged. In July , a conspiracy charge was used to convict graffitists for the first time.
Five of them received prison sentences, ranging from eighteen months to two years. The unprecedented scale of the investigation and the severity of the sentences rekindled public debate over whether graffiti should be considered art or crime. Some councils, like those of Stroud and Loerrach, provide approved areas in the town where graffitists can showcase their talents, including underpasses, car parks, and walls that might otherwise prove a target for the 'spray and run.
In Budapest , Hungary both a city-backed movement called I Love Budapest and a special police division tackle the problem, including the provision of approved areas. Graffiti in London , United Kingdom.
Graffiti tag in Melitopol , Ukraine. Integration of graffiti into its environment, Zumaia Graffiti made by school children in Rijeka , Croatia. Graffiti written in Georgian script , Tbilisi. Historical graffito of Gavrilo Princip in Belgrade , Serbia. Graffiti on an abandoned house in Kaunas , Lithuania.
Graffiti in Sofia , Bulgaria. Graffiti in Freetown Christiana , Copenhagen , Denmark. In an effort to reduce vandalism, many cities in Australia have designated walls or areas exclusively for use by graffitists. One early example is the "Graffiti Tunnel" located at the Camperdown Campus of the University of Sydney , which is available for use by any student at the university to tag, advertise, poster, and create "art".
Advocates of this idea suggest that this discourages petty vandalism yet encourages artists to take their time and produce great art, without worry of being caught or arrested for vandalism or trespassing. Many state governments have banned the sale or possession of spray paint to those under the age of 18 age of majority.
However, a number of local governments in Victoria have taken steps to recognize the cultural heritage value of some examples of graffiti, such as prominent political graffiti. Melbourne is a prominent graffiti city of Australia with many of its lanes being tourist attractions, such as Hosier Lane in particular, a popular destination for photographers, wedding photography, and backdrops for corporate print advertising.
The Lonely Planet travel guide cites Melbourne's street as a major attraction. All forms of graffiti, including sticker art, poster , stencil art, and wheatpasting , can be found in many places throughout the city. Kilda , and the CBD, where stencil and sticker art is prominent. As one moves farther away from the city, mostly along suburban train lines, graffiti tags become more prominent. Many international artists such as Banksy have left their work in Melbourne and in early a perspex screen was installed to prevent a Banksy stencil art piece from being destroyed, it has survived since through the respect of local street artists avoiding posting over it, although it has recently had paint tipped over it.
In February Helen Clark , the New Zealand prime minister at that time, announced a government crackdown on tagging and other forms of graffiti vandalism, describing it as a destructive crime representing an invasion of public and private property.
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The issue of tagging become a widely debated one following an incident in Auckland during January in which a middle-aged property owner stabbed one of two teenage taggers to death and was subsequently convicted of manslaughter. Graffiti databases have increased in the past decade because they allow vandalism incidents to be fully documented against an offender and help the police and prosecution charge and prosecute offenders for multiple counts of vandalism. They also provide law enforcement the ability to rapidly search for an offender's moniker or tag in a simple, effective, and comprehensive way.
These systems can also help track costs of damage to city to help allocate an anti-graffiti budget. The theory is that when an offender is caught putting up graffiti, they are not just charged with one count of vandalism; they can be held accountable for all of the other damage for which they are responsible. This has two main benefits for law enforcement. One, it sends a signal to the offenders that their vandalism is being tracked. Two, a city can seek restitution from offenders for all of the damage that they have committed, not merely a single incident.
These systems give law enforcement personnel real-time, street-level intelligence that allows them to not only focus on the worst graffiti offenders and their damage, but also to monitor potential gang violence that is associated with the graffiti. Many restrictions of civil gang injunctions are designed to help address and protect the physical environment and limit graffiti.
Some injunctions contain wording that restricts damaging or vandalizing the property of another, both public and private property, including, but limited to any vehicle, light fixture, door, fence, wall, gate, window, building, street sign, utility box, telephone box, trees, or power pole.
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To help address many of these issues, many local jurisdictions have set up graffiti abatement hotlines, where citizens can call in and report vandalism and have it removed. San Diego's hotline receives more than 5, calls per year, in addition to reporting the graffiti, callers can learn more about prevention. One of the complaints about these hotlines is the response time; there is often a lag time between a property owner calling about the graffiti and its removal.