Issues and Strategies, 1st Edition
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Each translation problem is carefully contextualized and illustrated with examples drawn from contemporary literature and the media. Using a comparative analysis approach, the authors discuss grammatical, lexical and semantic translation issues, and offer guidance regarding correct and idiomatic usage.
Translating Lexical Legal Terms Between English and Arabic | SpringerLink
A much-needed addition to the field for university-level students of translation and professional translators alike, the A to Z has been designed with a view to. Alphabetic arrangement of the entries ensures ease of use as both a manual and a reference work. As such, the A to Z is eminently suited for both independent and classroom use.
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- Arabic-English-Arabic translation: issues and strategies | University of Westminster.
Objectives and learning outcomes of the module On successful completion of this module a student will be able to: Develop skills in translating from Arabic into English, ensuring that the end product is cohesive, effective, and appropriate to the nature of the source text. Demonstrate developed ability in handling different text types, including literary, religious, academic, political, journalistic and biographical texts. Assess and analyse the nature and features of varieties of source texts, and demonstrate these skills through commentary on their translation choices and strategy.
Workload This module will be taught over 10 weeks with a 2 x 1 hour lectures in total. Scope and syllabus There is no set syllabus for this module, but texts will cover a core range of genres and text styles academic, political, commercial, technical, journalistic, Islamic religious texts, literary texts and non-fiction. Therefore, more research is required in this field in order to improve translation outcomes.
The findings affirm the hypothesis that lexical errors are made by accredited as well as student translators. It does not reveal conclusively, however, that errors at the lexical level are due to complex and or new lexical items. Keywords: equivalence, lexis, semantic, translation errors, Arab World English Journal www.
Arabic-English-Arabic Translation : Issues and Strategies (Bilingual) [Paperback]
In the process we are often faced with the dilemma of whether to stay loyal to the source text, or sacrifice some features in order to deliver the content accurately. The lexis represents a problem in this process and the lexical items we choose have an impact on the quality of the piece. In an attempt to understand some of the effects of these lexical choices on the target text this study was conducted. In an effort to assist translators in this process and contribute to a better understanding of the pitfalls involved in handling the two language systems this study have eventuated.
It proposes to identify and investigate lexical translation problems between English and Arabic by critically analysing some professionally translated health documents in New South Wales. The research aims to achieve the following: 1. Identify lexical translation errors made by professional translators in translated health documents in New South Wales and discuss their possible causes.
Highlight the types of lexical items which posed problems in these documents. The hypothesis is that lexical errors are not merely made by student translators but also by professionals because new and complex lexical items cause translation problems between English and Arabic. Does the lexis pose a problem in the translation of health documents from English into Arabic?
What kind of errors are made in translated health documents by professional translators between English and Arabic? What are the possible causes of these lexical errors in the translated documents? Catford, advocates finding formal equivalence, between languages, by initially focusing on the individual grammatical units then subsequently moving toward the text level. This view lacks practicality because languages vary in their grammatical systems and unless the source text language and target text language are very similar, this cannot be achieved.
Nida , focus on the message rather than the form and view translation dynamically, arguing that it is a communicative process. Arab World English Journal www. They emphasise the importance of understanding and assessing the salient features of the source text. The functional approach to translation is more appropriate than the pure linguistic approach because it views translation in context and therefore will constitute the basis for discussions in this paper.
They were chosen for a number of reasons. Firstly, they are accessible and can be conveniently downloaded. Secondly, these documents are the work of accredited translators who are approved by the government. Thirdly, they belong to the plain English types of texts and are written in a simple everyday English style. They generally have a low register and are easy to understand, therefore allowing for the assumption that if lexical translation problems exist in these documents they will most likely exist in more difficult texts.
To identify and investigate lexical problems faced when translating from English into Arabic the empirical data collected is critically analysed and examined for errors. A list of categories of errors is prepared.
They constitute errors related to additions, omissions, synonyms, compounds, collocations and consistency. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods is used in the analysis of the data. First the errors are identified, categorised and quantified frequency of occurrence noted and the results of each document are tabulated. The results are then qualitatively analysed to discuss the errors and establish their possible causes.
The analysis hinges on the functional approach to translation which stresses the importance of context and purpose in translation. Equivalence is looked at primarily from a semantic point of view because it is beyond the scope of this study to include other dimensions. Some of these studies have focused on examining and analysing work produced by translation students Mohamed n.
Therefore, there is a gap and a need for empirical studies like the present one which analyses tangible errors found in translated documents by professional translators in Australia. The literature identifies a number of issues as problematic in the areas of lexis and they will be discussed under the following categories. Both studies identify this problem, which is to some extent overlooked in the literature.
Saraireh highlights the difficulty with technical terms that lack equivalence in Arabic and focuses attention on the problem of inconsistency stemming Arab World English Journal www. He argues that in the absence of equivalence, the translator resorts to borrowing concepts from the target language and establishing signifiers for them, a strategy which can be problematic if not applied consistently.
Although Saraireh contributes to a better understanding of the pitfalls of translating technical terms, and the consequences of choosing certain lexical items over others, he fails to include two important lexical categories in his study. These are acronyms and proper names, which also constitute a source of inconsistency.
They therefore attempt in their article to solve this problem by creating a model for Arabic transliteration based on sound mapping and algorithm to standardise the process.
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However, as they concede, their work requires further investigation to resolve identified problems. It highlights the problematic nature of the transliteration strategy used for translating names and acronyms, and develops a sound understanding of the different alphabet and sound systems employed in both languages. Both these issues are important and contribute to the reduction of translation problems faced between the two languages. Synonyms A number of researchers have identified problems associated with the use of synonyms in translation; Saraireh , points to its problematic use to signify a borrowed concept in translation and consequently creating ambiguity and inconsistency in translation.
She includes these strategies in a section for dealing with non equivalence at word level in her book Baker, , pp. The lexical Gap between Arabic and English The problem of finding equivalence at word level in translation is noted by Catford Saraireh and Baker Saraireh identifies a gap between Arabic and English in relation to technical terms and points to lexical items in English which have only partial or no equivalence in Arabic.
Although Saraireh contributes to this area, his article focuses on technical terms and overlooks other types of lexical items. Catford similarly recognises that a gap can exist between languages at lexical level and causes problems in translation. He suggests looking at the context in order to solve this problem Catford, , pp. Baker adds to the contributions made by Saraireh and Catford in this area by recognising further categories for non equivalence at word level.
She includes such things as Arab World English Journal www. Collocations Collocations are important in translation because they place restrictions on how words can be placed together and add special meaning to groups of words. A number of writers like Catford , Baker and Bahumaid have dealt with collocations and their implications on translation. Bahumaid argues that collocations represent a major obstacle in translation and investigates in particular English and Arabic translations. Intralingual, he explains are those about identifying and establishing collocations in a particular language, and interlingual are about dealing with collocations across languages.
Bahumaid contributes to this area as he focuses on this important issue in translation, provides some strategies for translators, and points to the shortage of adequate resources on Arabic collocations. She emphasises the need for translators to recognise and interpret the meaning of collocations in order to avoid mistranslation. She justifiably advocates the need for translators to be familiar with terms, concepts and structures commonly accepted and used in the specific language fields they deal with.
Semantics The various types of meanings attached to lexical items must be taken into consideration when translating between languages if accuracy is to be achieved. Baker recognises the semantic complexity constituting a problem in translation and rightly remarks that sometimes it is not possible to realise how semantically complex a lexical item is until one has to translate it Baker, , p. This may not an accurate view because it can be argued that although not every reader will be able to recognise and identify all the meanings attached to a lexical item, competent language experts will.
Baker identifies the differences in meanings attached to words as a cause of translation problems at word level when the source and target languages make different distinctions in meanings. On the same issue Bell argues that the problem of finding equivalence at word and sentence level does not lie in finding words that have the same meaning in two languages but in the meanings derived from the relationships between words. Also, Bakir n. It, also points to new categories like compounds.
The following tables reveal the major types of lexical translation errors found and their frequency in each document. The tables are not intended to provide comparisons between texts as this does not serve a purpose in this research. Table 1.
When Snoring is a Problem. When is a Headache Caused by Migraine? Types of Lexical Translation Errors Total Additions 29 Omissions 23 Synonyms 4 Compounds 2 Collocations 3 Inconsistencies 4 Miscellaneous 2 As the tables reveal, it was possible to identify errors associated with additions, omissions, synonyms, compounds, collocations and lexical inconsistencies, in each of the translated texts.