Download e-book [Article] Motion on a Surface for any Positional Field of Force

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It is very important for walking and balancing, especially while on tiptoe.


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This is another deep muscle in the leg. The flexor digitorium longus starts on the back of the tibia near the soleus muscle. The muscle fibers end in a tendon that travels through the ankle and runs along the bottom of the foot. The flexor digitorium longus attaches to every toe except the big toe. It is this muscle that provides the power to flex the toes themselves.

It helps to support the arch of the foot and is used in plantar flexion. The tibialis posterior is the third deep muscle in the leg. It is the most central leg muscle and is vital in keeping the lower leg stable.

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It is attached to interosseous membrane which separates all bones in the leg and is connected to the tibia and fibula. The tendon of the tibialis posterior spreads out to attach to the metatarsals, which are the five long bones in the top of the foot. The tibialis posterior is also attached to other bones in the foot - the medial cuneiform, middle and lateral cuneiform, and navicular bones. The peroneus longus muscle starts at the upper section of the fibula. It runs down most of the fibula bone and attaches to the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal, which are the bones below the large "knuckle" of the big toe.

The tibialis posterior and the peroneus longus work together in the middle foot to create support for the weight-bearing arches of the foot.

Motion of Charged Particle In A Magnetic Field

These two muscles help keep the ankle stable when standing or rising onto the toes. The peroneus brevis lies just underneath the peroneus longus. It starts in the shaft of the fibula, and the tendon stretches to the foot, where it attaches to the metatarsal of the little toe. The peroneus longus and peroneus brevis help keep the foot stable. All these muscles and tendons work together in plantar flexion to help the body stay balanced and stable. When there is a problem with even one of these muscles or tendons, the whole system is weakened, causing injury and a reduced range of motion.

An injury to any one of the muscles supporting the act of plantar flexion will limit the range of motion of the foot. Ankle injuries are one of the most common ways to severely limit plantar flexion. The ankle is a very complex joint. It is capable of a wide range of movement to stabilize the body in the most difficult situations, such as hiking or jumping on uneven surfaces.

It does this while also protecting key ligaments, arteries, and nerves. When the ankle is injured, inflammation helps prevent additional injury by reducing the range of motion of the foot. This can drastically reduce plantar flexion, sometimes to the degree where a person cannot move their foot. Ankle injuries can range in severity from mild sprains to severe fractures. The severity of the injury will determine the treatment.

Treating injuries depends on the type of injury that the person has sustained. Mild ankle sprains do not require casts or splints. Instead, they can be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation, known as the RICE method. More severe sprains, tendon injuries, and some fractures will require a splint or cast to hold the ankle in its proper position.

During this time, an individual will not be able to put weight on their foot or ankle. If the ankle is not stable where the fracture has occurred, surgery is usually required. This may mean putting a plate or screws into the bones of the ankle to keep it in position while it heals. It usually takes a minimum of 6 weeks for a fracture to heal.

All forms of ankle, leg, or foot injury that affect plantar flexion will involve physical therapy and exercise to strengthen the muscles and tendons and protect them from future injury. Failing to do these exercises puts people at risk of further injuries in the future.

A data set with kinematic and ground reaction forces of human balance

Preventing injuries in the muscles and joints that control plantar flexion starts with doing regular mobility and strength work. There are many exercises that can be done to strengthen the muscles and tendons that are used in plantar flexion and help protect the ankle. Simple exercises such as toe raises can build strength. Low impact exercise such as swimming and biking can also promote flexibility and strength in the legs, feet, and ankles.

Stepping correctly can also help prevent injuries. Incorrect walking patterns may contribute to injuries over time. This can include walking in high heels or poorly fitted shoes. Taking conscious steps can help if a person has a tendency to over correct or step incorrectly. It can also help to walk barefoot for at least 30 minutes each day, to allow the feet to walk in their natural position.

An appointment with a podiatrist or orthopedic surgeon may help anyone with regular injuries or limited plantar flexion to find a solution. This may help the doctor understand a person's walking pattern and decide whether they would benefit from particular shoes or specific exercises.

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Article last reviewed by Thu 6 July All references are available in the References tab. Chung-Wei, C. Evidence-based treatment for ankle injuries: A clinical perspective. Crist, B. Doherty, C. The incidence and prevalence of ankle sprain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies [Abstract]. Sports Medicine , 44 1 , The ankle. MLA Johnson, Jon. MediLexicon, Intl. APA Johnson, J. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.

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Scroll to Accept. The ability to locate the center of gravity of a body is based on the knowledge of what it takes for a system to be balanced, or in equilibrium.


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  • Two conditions must be met:. All the linear forces acting on the body must be balanced. All the rotary forces torques must be balanced. Another way of expressing these necessary conditions for equilibrium is to say that the sum of all the forces acting on the body must equal zero. If there is a downward-directed linear force, there must be an equal upward force so that the vector sum of these forces equals zero. If there is a negative clockwise torque, it must be canceled out by a positive counterclockwise torque of equal magnitude Figure In this illustration it is represented as the intersection of the x -, y -, and z -axes.

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