Manual Bluetongue (Biology of Animal Infections)

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Horse Owner's Veterinary Handbook 3rd Edition. Equine Massage A Practical Guide. Osteopathy and the Treatment of Horses. Equine Veterinary Nursing. Manual of Equine Reproduction 3rd Edition. Principles of Cattle Production. Veterinary Notes For Horse Owners. Equine Internal Medicine 4e. Collection or Contortion? Exposing the Misconceptions and Exploring the T Equine Exercise Physiology.

Large Animal Internal Medicine, 5e. Popular Searches body by science dk science book nursing care plan example the right side of history ben shapiro ka stroud engineering mathematics pdf. Transmission can also occur in pregant animals, the virus can cross the placenta and cause congenital defects in the offspring. Bluetongue virus can infect all ruminants e.


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Sheep are most severely affected by the disease. Cattle, although infected more frequently than sheep, do not always show signs of the disease. Outbreaks of bluetongue affect farm incomes through reduced milk yield, sickness, reduced reproductive performance failed pregnancies, abortion, central nervous system deformities in the calf or lamb or, in severe cases, the death of adult animals. Bluetongue virus does not affect people and consumption of meat and milk from infected animals is safe. Bluetongue is a notifiable disease. Failure to do so is an offence. The NFU has joined other organisations from across the livestock sector to urge farmers to think carefully about importing animals from areas that are known to be infected with bluetongue BTV virus.

The midge-borne disease has continued to circulate around Europe with cases being reported in France, Switzerland, Cyprus, Portugal, Spain, Greece and Italy and more recently in Germany and Belgium.


  1. Bioorganic Chemistry Frontiers.
  2. Bluetongue: control, surveillance and safe movement of animals.
  3. Bluetongue: control, surveillance and safe movement of animals.
  4. Associated diseases:.
  5. Vibrational spectra: principles and applications with emphasis on optical activity.
  6. Farmers should keep up with news on which countries are affected as these can change regularly as the vector active season typically April-November progresses. The UK is officially bluetongue free and the risk status is currently low, although this may change in the coming months. Livestock farmers are being urged to think carefully about importing animals from areas that are known to be infected with Bluetongue virus.

    The call comes after the virus was found, following post-import testing, in imported animals several times in less than 12 months. The infected animals have been slaughtered and no compensation was paid. The midge-borne disease has been circulating around Europe with cases being reported in France, Switzerland, Cyprus, Portugal, Spain, Greece and Italy.

    Bluetongue

    Such tests should provide confirmation of the BTV and vaccination status of the animals. The movement of herds or flocks should then be restricted until the required post-import testing is carried out. If imported animals are found to be infected with bluetongue, they will be culled, with no compensation.

    It is also a clear reminder for farmers that the disease remains a threat, despite coming towards the end of the season when midges are less active. They should also work with importers to make sure effective vaccination needs are complied with and that all animals are sourced responsibly. Bluetongue does not pose a threat to human health or food safety, but can have a negative impact on farm incomes, for example by causing reduced milk yield in cows and infertility in sheep.


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    • Illegal Vaccine Triggers Bluetongue Outbreak?

    Farmers must be vigilant when importing livestock from high risk or restricted areas, and perhaps even reconsider importing animals from areas where BTV is present. Farmers are urged to seek advice from their vet about the risks and the health status of animals they'd like to import, prior to importing them. The UK has robust disease surveillance procedures and continue to carefully monitor the situation in France, where Bluetongue disease control measures are in place.

    Hear from Ken Proctor , he had Bluetongue on his dairy farm back in , read about his experience, the short and longer term losses that his herd suffered and why the disease must not be treated with complacency. An outbreak of bluetongue will affect farm incomes directly and indirectly.

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    In addition to direct costs for treatment, loss of production, the necessary imposition of animal movement restrictions during a bluetongue outbreak might have an even greater negative impact on a farm business. The current bluetongue disease control strategy imposes a control zone CZ of at least 20km around an infected premises IP. Sushila Maan, Narender S. Oura, and Peter P. Maan, N. Maan, K. Nomikou, C. Batten, F. Antony, M. Belaganahalli, C. Oura, P. Samy, A. Reda, S. Al-Rashid, M.

    Bluetongue virus of ruminants

    The Study. Figure 1 Figure 1.

    Bluetongue virus | The Pirbright Institute

    Figure 2 Figure 2. We thank international colleagues who provided virus isolates for analyses and comparisons.

    Vet Rec. DOI PubMed. Bluetongue virus, other orbiviruses and other reoviruses: their relationships and taxonomy. Bluetongue monograph. World Organisation for Animal Health.

    Illegal Vaccine Triggers Bluetongue Outbreak

    J Virol Methods. Rapid detection and quantitation of bluetongue virus BTV using a molecular beacon fluorescent probe assay. Detection and differentiation of epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer and bluetongue viruses by serogroup-specific sandwich ELISA. Mol Biol Evol. Neutralization tests. Diagnostic methods in clinical virology, 2nd ed.