Current models interpret such extreme vulnerability as the price to pay for optimal learning. Sleep would limit external interferences on memory consolidation 1 , 2 , 3 and allow neural systems to reset through synaptic downscaling 4. Yet, the sleeping brain continues generating neural responses to external events 5 , 6 , revealing the preservation of cognitive processes ranging from the recognition of familiar stimuli to the formation of new memory representations 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , Why would sleepers continue processing external events and yet remain unresponsive?
Using electroencephalography to reconstruct competing streams in a multitalker environment 16 , we demonstrate that the sleeping brain amplifies meaningful speech compared to irrelevant signals. However, the amplification of relevant stimuli was transient and vanished during deep sleep. The effect of sleep depth could be traced back to specific oscillations, with K-complexes promoting relevant information in light sleep, whereas slow waves actively suppress relevant signals in deep sleep.
Thus, the selection of relevant stimuli continues to operate during sleep but is strongly modulated by specific brain rhythms. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Rasch, B. Diekelmann, S. The memory function of sleep.
Conjoint Professor John Rayner
Peigneux, P. Sleeping brain, learning brain the role of sleep for memory systems.
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Neuroreport 12 , A—A Tononi, G. Sleep and the price of plasticity: from synaptic and cellular homeostasis to memory consolidation and integration.
References and Further Reading
Neuron 81 , 12—34 Issa, E. Sensory responses during sleep in primate primary and secondary auditory cortex. Nir, Y. Cortex 25 , — Perrin, F. ERPs and contextual semantic discrimination: degrees of congruence in wakefulness and sleep. Brain Lang. Bastuji, H. Semantic analysis of auditory input during sleep: studies with event related potentials.
Brualla, J. Auditory event-related potentials to semantic priming during sleep. Ruby, P. Odd sound processing in the sleeping brain. Strauss, M. Disruption of hierarchical predictive coding during sleep. Natl Acad. USA , E—E Arzi, A.
References and Further Reading
Humans can learn new information during sleep. Explicit memory creation during sleep demonstrates a causal role of place cells in navigation. Andrillon, T. Formation and suppression of acoustic memories during human sleep. Attentional selection in a cocktail party environment can be decoded from single-trial EEG. Formby, D.
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Child Neurol. Cherry, E. Some experiments on the recognition of speech, with one and with two ears. Mesgarani, N. Influence of context and behavior on stimulus reconstruction from neural activity in primary auditory cortex.
Selective cortical representation of attended speaker in multi-talker speech perception. Nature , — Bastien, C. EEG characteristics prior to and following the evoked K-complex. Sleep Med. Destexhe, A. Trends Neurosci. Steriade, M.
Sleepers track informative speech in a multitalker environment
Press, Cambridge, McCormick, D. Sensory gating mechanisms of the thalamus. Sela, Y. Responses in rat core auditory cortex are preserved during sleep spindle oscillations. Sleep 39 , — Neural markers of responsiveness to the environment in human sleep. Kouider, S. Inducing task-relevant responses to speech in the sleeping brain. Hennevin, E. Neural representations during sleep: from sensory processing to memory traces. Why does consciousness fade in early sleep? De Boer, E. Auditory System. Iber, C. Massimini, M. Siclari, F.
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Two distinct synchronization processes in the transition to sleep: a high-density electroencephalographic study. Sleep 37 , — Sara, S. The locus coeruleus and noradrenergic modulation of cognition. Eschenko, O. Noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus are phase locked to cortical up-down states during sleep. It represents a plea for a positive yet forthrightly critical approach to Rabbinic Law in general aswell as to a variety of specific topics such as the language of prayer, the status of women, medical confidentiality, euthanasia, Jewish identity, cont Rayne r , J.
Sensory data can be costly to obtain and so gleaning the most information possible from the data is key. Increasingly, value is added to sensory evaluation by the use of statistics, especially to improve the quality of product development and to make the most of market research.
Nonparametrics for Sensory Science is written to complement existing parametric methodology. It represents a plea for a positive yet forthrightly critical approach to Rabbinic Law in general aswell as to a variety of specific topics such as the language of prayer, the status of women, medical confidentiality, euthanasia, Jewish identity, co It is now offered to a wider public than the relatively small audiences to which they were originally addressed.
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If there is a common thread that runs through this volume, it is its emphasis on the gentler and more outward-looking values of Judaism, which are not much in evidence today. By cultivating and exemplify His comments cover a wide range of topics, including Jewish continuity, Progressive Judaism, Zionism and the State of Israel, world events, social issues, and Je It explains how indeterminacy arises from counteraction between associative and dissociative processes at the reactive interfaces between living systems and their surroundings.
It stresses the relevance of these processes Montefiore's "Truth in Religion" of It combines forthrightly radical thinking with spirituality, love of Jewish tradition, and an abundance of carefully documented quotations from classical Jewish s Montefiore's Truth in Religion of It combines forthrightly radical thinking with spirituality, love of Jewish tradition, and an abundance of carefully documented quotations from classical Jewish sou Rayne r , David F.
Goldberg , David J. It is a single volume history of more than years of Jewish history and literature, and a synopsis of Jewish belief and practice.
The author, David Raynor, is well known for his revision and practice books, and provides all students need for exam success. It includes: up-to-date curriculum coverage, new non-calculator work in line wi Rayne r , David J. The first part offers a survey of Jewish history and literature. The second part presents what the preface describes as 'a thematic analysis of the teachings and practices of Judaism. Shermann, "Times Literary Supplemen Goldberg , David L.
The second part presents what the preface describes as 'a thematic analysis of the teachings and practices of Judaism'. Shermann, "Times Literary Supple